Welcome to practical physicsPracticle physics - practical activities designed for use in the classroom with 11 to 19 year olds
 

Straight line graphs

Drawing straight line graphs

Once you have plotted the points of a graph, checked for any anomalies and decided that the best fit will be a straight line: 

  • To select the best fit straight line, take a weighted average of your measurements giving less weight to points that seem out of line with the rest. 
  • Use a ruler to draw the line. 

Interpreting straight line graphs

Proportionality: 
A straight line through the origin represents direct proportionality between the two variables plotted, y = mx. If the plotted points (expressing your experimental results) lie close to such a line, then they show the behaviour of your experiment is close to that proportionality. 
 
Linear relationships: 
In many experiments the best straight line fails to go through the origin. In that case, there is a simple linear relationship, y = mx + c. Historically, one of the most far-reaching examples is the graph of pressure of gas in a flask (constant volume) against temperature. The intersect on the temperature axis gives an absolute zero of temperature, and an estimate of its value. 
 
Identifying systematic errors: 
In some experiments, all measurements of one quantity are wrong by a constant amount. This is called a ‘systematic error’. (For example, in a pendulum investigation of T against l all the lengths may be too small because you forgot to add the radius of the bob. Plotting T2 against l will still give a straight line if every value of l is too short by the radius but the line does not pass through the origin.) In such cases, the intersect can give valuable information. 
 
Checking for constancy: 
Consider the acceleration of a trolley. If you plot s against t2, where s is the distance and t is the total time of travel from rest, then you hope to get a straight line through the origin. [A straight line through the origin shows that s = constant t2.] 
 
In fact we know that s is proportional to t2 for any case of constant acceleration from rest. Simple mathematics lead from the statement that Δv / Δt = acceleration, giving s = 1/2at2 providing a is constant. [ Δv = change of velocity, Δt = time taken.] 
 
IF a is constant, THEN s = 1/2at2 because logic does that. So why might you plot the graph? To find out whether the trolley moved with constant acceleration.